From your terminal photo, I assume you've tried 3 timed the wrong password (shown as PAM Error) and more often the right one (not shown in the log)?
If you've only tried once the false one, the password is always wrong ... As in sudo, I think the system asks for your user password, not for the root (aka administrator) password. But since I'm not familiar with Thunar, I could be wrong ... I would go the following steps to analyze:
Please try to mount manual.
$ sudo fdisk -l |grep sda1
See what type of partition you've got. NTFS? Here is mine (ext4):
/dev/sda1 * 2048 195311615 195309568 93,1G 83 Linux
-> The types are explained in Partition types: List of partition identifiers for PCs
sudo mount -t auto /dev/sda1 /mnt
See if any error will be shown. Sometimes it is something like 'partition not unmounted properly, please do some magic with --force or so'
If no Error is shown, try to access via /mnt ... Is everything there?
Depending on the results, we can go on.